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MSCA-COFUND-CLEAR-Doc-PhD Position #CD22-30: Thermal fatigue of eRoads. Development of a fatigue test and transient FEM thermo-mechanical simulations

14/10/2022

Job Information

Organisation/Company
Université Gustave Eiffel
Department
MAST-MIT
Research Field
Engineering
Engineering » Civil engineering
Engineering » Mechanical engineering
Researcher Profile
First Stage Researcher (R1)
Country
France
Application Deadline
Type of Contract
Temporary
Job Status
Full-time
Hours Per Week
35
Is the job funded through the EU Research Framework Programme?
H2020 / Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions COFUND
Marie Curie Grant Agreement Number
101034248
Is the Job related to staff position within a Research Infrastructure?
No

Offer Description

1. Introduction

This work is dedicated to eRoads (electric roads, for dynamic charging of vehicles), a major topic for decarbonizing road freight transport. Several projects on this topic are in progress or being started (Fabric, Incit-Ev, Mobility, ERS Mont Blanc, …). We focus here on the concept of eRoads using a conductive system integrated in the bituminous road layers. A previous research, done in the PhD of Alves, helped to define several procedures for integrating such charging systems into the road. Several failure mechanisms of eRoads could be identified. The presence of rigid inserts in eRoads led to adapt our experimental and numerical tools dedicated to the analysis of traditional pavements. Indeed, eRoads require specific analysis, and they also need the definition of new failure criteria taking into account the interaction between the charging elements and the surrounding pavement materials, and in particular thermal fatigue induced by the daily temperature variations inside the eRoad, which leads to a differential behaviour of the eRoad materials. The objective of the thesis is to develop test methods and models to study and predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour, and failure mechanisms of eRoads, in continuation of the work done by Alves. These tools will be applied to assess current eRoad designs proposed by the manufacturers.

2. Objectives

The first goal is to develop a thermal fatigue test reproducing the temperature cycles to which the eRoad will be submitted, to evaluate the deformations of the structure and the risks of cracking. The second one relies on the 3D simulations of the thermal fatigue of real eRoad structures. The third goal is to set up tools for the prediction of fatigue crack growth.

2.1. Development of a thermal fatigue test

The most common traffic-induced damages in roads are rutting and fatigue cracking. In eRoads, a new source of damage was identified: thermal fatigue. There is currently no test able to characterise the response of an eRoad undergoing daily temperature variations. In our laboratory we developed qualitative thermal fatigue tests. Then Alves proposed to use DIC to measure the strains developing around the charging system. Although many advances were performed, the test conditions need to be improved. This kind of test will also help to validate the model used for simulating eRoads by comparing experimental and numerical results on small scale samples.

2.2. Transient 3D coupled ThVE simulations of an eRoad

Many works are being performed on eRoads. Several experimental and numerical analyses performed by (Alves, 2022) and (Mazhoud & al., 2022) showed the strong influence of daily variations of temperature on the ThVE behaviour of eRoads. These 2D simulations considered an eRoad section. They could predict the evolution of strains and stresses with time. The objective now is to consider the 3D geometry of the charging system to better simulate inductive and conductive eRoad technologies, developed in ongoing projects.

The simulation of the laboratory tests will be used to validate the mechanical models and also to optimise the tests in terms of experimental loading and boundary conditions representative of a real road.

2.3. Improvement of models, analysis of cracking

Several characteristics of the current simulation tools potentially need improvements (contacts, constitutive models,...). This can have a huge impact on the eRoad behaviour and its lifetime (Gabet & al., under review). Alves also showed that daily temperature variations coupled to trafic, could lead to cracking of the asphalt concrete around the charging box. Our third objective will be to study this aspect considering concepts of fracture mechanics and computing quantities like stress intensity factor or energy release rate for comparison to critical values. This part of the work could also benefit from recent research conducted in the team about the modelling of crack growth in viscoelastic media (Shiferaw et al. 2021).

3. Candidate

The candidate should have :

a degree in mechanical or civil engineering,

a good knowledge of continuum mechanics and numerical modelling,

a good level of English.

a strong interest in numerical simulations and experimental testing, to use existing experimental and modelling tools, and to improve them.

4. Work plan of the PhD thesis

The beginning of the PhD thesis will be dedicated to a state of the art review covering: behaviour of asphalt materials, pavement design and modelling methods, eRoad solutions and their behaviour, transient FEM thermo-mechanical simulations, model coupling in numerical simulations, fracture mechanics.

Then, the student will contribute to design and set up the thermal fatigue tests, with the help of a postdoc and technicians. First, simulations will be performed to assist in the development of the physical model. The student will have to define the thermal and mechanical boundary and loading conditions, and the instrumentation of the model. A test program will then be defined to test different eRoad configurations.

The modelling work will start by handling the existing model, developed in the FEM code Cast3m. Then the student will move to 3D transient ThVE simulations, performed with Abaqus. The objective will be first to predict stress and strain fields in the pavement structure, and then to associate the prediction of cracking or damage.

International mobility : International mobility planned at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (Sweden).

References :

Alves, T. (26th of September 2022). Thermomechanical behaviour of bituminous layers containing rigid inserts for eRoads [Doctoral Thesis]. ECNantes & Universidade de Sao Paulo.

Alves T. & al. (2022). 2-D FEM thermomechanical coupling in the analysis of a flexible eRoad subjected to thermal and traffic loading, IJRMPD, 2022, special edition ISAP2022.

Chen, F. & al. (2017). Towards an understanding of the structural performance of future electrified roads. GPAV, https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2017.1279487

Chen, F & al. (2018). Structural performance of electrified roads: A computational analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.273

Gabet T & al. (2022). Thermo-Viscoelastic Analysis of an Inductive Charging System Included in an Eroads. Incit-Ev Project. Journal Transportation Engineering

Mazhoud B & al. (2022). Pavement integration of an inductive charging system for electric vehicles. Results of the INCIT-EV project. Journal Transportation Engineering

(Shiferaw et al., 2021). Development of a damage viscoelastic model using the thick level set approach to fracture: DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2021.108026

Requirements

Research Field
Engineering
Education Level
Bachelor Degree or equivalent
Skills/Qualifications
  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in possession or finalizing their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree.
  • At the time of recruitment, applicants must be in possession of their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree which would formally entitle to embark on a doctorate.
  • The candidate should have :

    a degree in mechanical or civil engineering,

    a good knowledge of continuum mechanics and numerical modelling,

    a good level of English.

    a strong interest in numerical simulations and experimental testing, to use existing experimental and modelling tools, and to improve them.

Specific Requirements

The candidate should have :

  • a degree in mechanical or civil engineering,
  • a good knowledge of continuum mechanics and numerical modelling,
  • a good level of English.
  • a strong interest in numerical simulations and experimental testing, to use existing experimental and modelling tools, and to improve them.
Languages
FRENCH
Level
Good
Languages
ENGLISH
Level
Excellent

Additional Information

Benefits
  • High-quality doctoral training rewarded by a PhD degree, delivered by Université Gustave Eiffel
  • Access to cutting-edge infrastructures for research & innovation.
  • Appointment for a period of 36 months based on a salary of 2 700 € (gross salary per month).
  • Job contract under the French labour legislation in force, respecting health and safety, and social security: 35 hours per week contract, 25 days of annual leave per year.
  • International mobility will be mandatory
  • An international environment supported by the adherence to the European Charter & Code.
  • Access to dedicated CLEAR-Doc trainings with a strong interdisciplinary focus, together with a Career development Plan.
Eligibility criteria

Applicants must fulfil the following eligibility criteria :

  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in possession or finalizing their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree
  • At the time of recruitment, applicants must be in possession of their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree which would formally entitle to embark on a doctorate.
  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in the first four years (full-time equivalent research experience) of their research career (career breaks excluded) and not yet been awarded a doctoral degree. Career breaks refer to periods of time where the candidate was not active in research, regardless of his/her employment status (sick leave, maternity leave etc). Short stays such as holidays and/or compulsory national service are not taken into account.
  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must fulfil the transnational mobility rule: incoming applicants must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in France for more than 12 months in the 3 previous years.
  • One application per call per year is allowed.
  • Applicants must be available full-time to start the programme on schedule (November 1st 2023).
  • Application rules are enforced by the French doctoral system which specifies a standard duration of 3 years for a full-time PhD together with the MSCA standards and the OTM-R European rules as follows.
  • Citizens of any nationality may apply to the programme.
  • There is no age limit.
Selection process
Additional comments
  • The first step before applying is contacting the PhD supervisor. You will not be able to apply without an acceptation letter from the PhD supervisor
  • International mobility : International mobility planned at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (Sweden).
  • Please contact the PhD supervisor for any additional detail on job offer
  • There are no restrictions concerning the age, gender or nationality of the candidates. Applicants with career breaks or variations in the chronological sequence of their career, with mobility experience or with interdisciplinary background or private sector experience are welcome to apply
  • Support service is available during every step of the application process by email: clear-doc@univ-eiffel.fr
Website for additional job details

Work Location(s)

Number of offers available
1
Company/Institute
Université Gustave Eiffel
Country
France
City
Bouguenais
Postal Code
44340
Street
Allée des Ponts et Chaussées
Geofield

Contact

City
Marne-La-Vallée
Website
Street
5, Boulevard Descartes
Postal Code
77454
E-Mail
thomas.gabet@univ-eiffel.fr