Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions

MSCA-COFUND-CLEAR-Doc - PhD Position #CD21-51: Tourists in metropolitan area during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. The cases of Paris 2024 and Los Angeles 2028

This job offer has expired

    Université Gustave Eiffel
    First Stage Researcher (R1)
    21/03/2022 17:00 - Europe/Brussels
    France › Marne-La-Vallée
    H2020 / Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions COFUND


The question of attendance at major sports events is a central issue: it has an influence on tourist activity, economic impact, carbon footprint, security arrangements, etc. However, attendance can vary greatly depending on the metropolitan context: the Olympic and Paralympic Games can be attractive and contribute to an increase in international exchanges, as in Rio in 2016 (Rocha & Fink, 2017), or they can be a hindrance, generating a substitution effect, as was the case in London in 2012 (Delaplace, 2020). While some cities make events the basis of their urban development (Pradel, 2013), it is important to better understand tourists in order to assess the place they should be given in urban development.

It is not just a question of estimating volumes but of knowing tourist activity in more detail. The tourist experience is at the heart of the analysis. It is understood here in the sense of Cohen (1979) and the more recent work of Sharpley and Stone (2012) who consider it as ""the set of services or experiences consumed by the tourist during a holiday or time away from home"". This set is taken in all its variety from the relationship to the urban object (Simon, 2015), to its inhabitants (Corbillé, 2009), to the interactions with the smart destination (Jeong & Shin, 2020). From an interactionist point of view, it is also a question of considering the effects on the image of the destination (Ferreira et al., 2018).

This research will consider the multiplicity of destinations that join the host city in welcoming tourists. In this way, it will be possible to apprehend the spatialities of visitors' journeys (Debarbieux, 2008).

The central question of this project is to analyse the experience of tourists coming to experience the Olympic and Paralympic Games in the host city. By targeting visitors to sporting events, the aim is to understand the tourist experience as a whole, paying particular attention to the combinations between activities linked to the Olympic and Paralympic Games and more traditional forms of tourist practice. In other words, we will show that the tourism experience of the sports event encompasses more varied and complex realities that do not systematically pass through the sports stadium and are not exclusively oriented towards the event. Mobilities before, during and after the event will be characterised in order to identify the different facets of the tourist experience. Ultimately, we will try to test two hypotheses: the experience of the sporting event is based on the experience of the spectacle offered within the sports stadiums; the tourist takes advantage of the sporting event to visit the host city, region or country.

The methodology envisaged is based on an in situ survey during the Paris 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It is based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of tourists' experiences. The questionnaire will make it possible to establish profiles based on factorial correspondence analyses, and to estimate their respective proportions. The semi-structured interviews provide a more in-depth analysis of the profiles, with a more detailed analysis of the experience of the sports event and the places that shape it. The analysis is not limited to the sports event in its most restrictive form: the fact of attending a sports performance in a venue to which access is limited to ticket holders. It aims to encompass more diffuse experiences such as live sites (or fan zones) which allow people to experience the event in public spaces or the combination of sports tourism with leisure or business tourism.

In the long term, the aim is to go beyond a simple observation to give a comprehensive and precise vision of the number of tourists visiting Paris during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Beyond that, the aim is to establish a model that could be designed for the Los Angeles 2028 Games by integrating the specific characteristics of the city's tourist traffic and its tourist environment.


Pradel, B. (2013). Rythmes événementiels et aménagement des espaces publics à Paris, Bruxelles et Montréal. Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, 36/1, 78-93.

Cohen, E. (1979). A Phenomenology of Tourist Experiences. Sociology, 13-2, 179-201.

Debarbieux, B., Del Biaggio, C. & Petite, M. (2008). Spatialités et territorialités du tourisme: Dialectique du flux et de l'ancrage dans les Alpes. Civilisations, 57/1, 75-89.

Delaplace, M. (2020). The Relationship between Olympic Games and tourism. Why such heterogeneity?. In Hosting the Olympic Games, M. Delalplace & P.O. Schut (eds), London: Routledge, 127-148.

Jeong, M., & Shin, H. H. (2020). Tourists’ experiences with smart tourism technology at smart destinations and their behavior intentions. Journal of Travel Research, 59/8, 1464-1477.

Sharpley, R. & Stone Philip R. (dir.). Contemporary tourist experience: concepts and consequence. Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2012

Simon, G. (2015). L’expérience urbaine des touristes : une approche relationnelle avec les objets du monde urbain », In Le Tourisme comme expérience. Regards interdisciplinaires sur le vécu touristique, J.-M.Decroly (ed.), Montréal : Presses Universitaires du Québec.

Corbillé, S. (2009). Tourisme, diversité enchantée et rapports symboliques dans les quartiers gentrifiés du nord-est de Paris. Genèses, 76, 30-51.

Rocha, C. M., Fink, J. S. (2017). Attitudes toward attending the 2016 Olympic Games and visiting Brazil after the games, Tourism Management Perspectives, 22, 17-26.

Ferreira, L. B., de Arruda Lourenção, M. T., Giraldi, J. D. M. E., & De Oliveira, J. H. C. (2018). Economic and image impacts of Summer Olympic Games in tourist destinations: a review of the literature. Tourism & Management Studies, 14/3, 52-63."

International Mobility

A secondment at California State University à Fullerton (USA).

For more information, contact the PhD thesis supervisor.


More Information


  • High-quality doctoral training rewarded by a PhD degree, delivered by Université Gustave Eiffel
  • Access to cutting-edge infrastructures for research & innovation.
  • Appointment for a period of 36 months based on a salary of 2 700 € (gross salary per month).
  • Job contract under the French labour legislation in force, respecting health and safety, and social security: 35 hours per week contract, 25 days of annual leave per year.
  • International mobility will be mandatory
  • An international environment supported by the adherence to the European Charter & Code.
  • Access to dedicated CLEAR-Doc trainings with a strong interdisciplinary focus, together with a Career development Plan.


Eligibility criteria

  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in possession or finalizing their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree. At the time of recruitment, applicants must be in possession of their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree which would formally entitle to embark on a doctorate.
  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in the first four years (full-time equivalent research experience) of their research career (career breaks excluded) and not yet been awarded a doctoral degree. Career breaks refer to periods of time where the candidate was not active in research, regardless of his/her employment status (sick leave, maternity leave etc). Short stays such as holidays and/or compulsory national service are not taken into account.
  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must not have resided or carried out their main activity (work, studies, etc.) in France for more than 12 months in the 3 years immediately prior to the call deadline.
  • Applicants must be available to start the programme on schedule (around 1st October 2022).

Selection process

Additional comments

  • The First step before applying is contacting the PhD supervisor. You will not be able to apply without an acceptation letter from the PhD supervisor.
  • Please contact the PhD supervisor for any additional detail on job offer.
  • There are no restrictions concerning the age, gender or nationality of the candidates. Applicants with career breaks or variations in the chronological sequence of their career, with mobility experience or with interdisciplinary background or private sector experience are welcome to apply.
  • Support service is available during every step of the application process by email: clear-doc@univ-eiffel.fr

Web site for additional job details

Offer Requirements

    ENGLISH: Good
    FRENCH: Good


  • At the time of the deadline, applicants must be in possession or finalizing their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree.
  • At the time of recruitment, applicants must be in possession of their Master’s degree or equivalent/postgraduate degree which would formally entitle to embark on a doctorate.


Specific Requirements

  • Language Skills requirements:
    • English: At least B2, C1 preferred
    • French : At least B2, C1 preferred
  • A secondment at California State University à Fullerton (USA). For more information, contact the PhD thesis supervisor.

Work location(s)
1 position(s) available at
Université Gustave Eiffel
5, Boulevard Descartes

EURAXESS offer ID: 716943


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